№1 2016
Analysis of new technologies and ways of development for systems of control, communication and security

Next Generation Networks
 Abstract
 Statement of the problem. The development of new technologies of network integration on a common platform of telecommunications services are very important, because there are many factors: the convergence of networks, develop new services, new systems and technologies in the field of telecommunications and Informatics. The aim of the study is to analyze the applicability of the next generation networks (NGN) technology for the convergence of modern telecommunication systems that will allow operators to provide new services. Also preparation of proposals for the convergence of transport networks deployed by different operators and providers is an additional goal of the purpose. Result. The study showed that unified communication space of operators which brings together networks based on different technologies of transport networks can be created based on the concept of NGN. IP/MPLS networks will be the basis of such a space. Also, resource management methods, which are adopted in the NGN will provide for the development of new communication services. Practical relevance. Network H.323 is considered as an example of the application of the concept of NGN to create a communication space of the operator, which specializes in the provision of services to voice and video.
 Key words
 convergence of networks, next generation networks, NGN, H.323
 Reference
 Makarenko S. I., Chalenko N. N., Krylov A. G. Next Generation Networks. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 81102. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/05Makarenko.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Technical and Economic Assessment for New Technologies which Realize at Technical Systems
 Abstract
 Statement of the problem. Technological improvement of technical systems is constantly happening now. The task of determining the economic expedience of introducing new technological solutions, which are obtained as a result of the implementation of dissertation research or scientific research occurs in some cases. Changes in the technical system require a analysis experience. The economic expedience of the design, production and exploitation of new technological solutions should be conducted for evidencebased introduction of new technology. The aim of this paper is to develop method of simplified feasibility analysis. This method will allow make a simplified assessment of the economic viability of improving the technological characteristics of the upgraded technical systems, on a limited set of parameters. Novelty. The indicator of the feasibility expedience of new technological solutions within method based on limited number of parameters and this is the element of novelty. These parameters include – the grow efficiency of the system as a result of introduction of new technological solutions; the cost of upgrade of hardware and software systems; changing cost characteristics of the process of its operation. Practical relevance. Method of feasibility analysis to allow for rapid and simplified evaluation of the economic expedience of introducing new technological solutions in the technical systems at the stage of their development. This technique will be useful for researchers for conducting economic assessment of the feasibility of their proposed improvements of technical systems.
 Key words
 feasibility analysis, economic expedience, criterion "efficiencycost"
 Reference
 Makarenko S. I. Technical and Economic Assessment for New Technologies which Realize at Technical Systems. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 278287. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/12Makarenko.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Control systems

Mathematical Model of the Production Processes, Taking into Account Their Specific Features
 Abstract
 Statement of the problem. Stationary Queuing systems are standard mathematical model to describe many engineering, biological and other systems. However, in areas such as automation process control, management of environmental monitoring, planning combat actions, real systems are characterized by running in unsteady mode. The parameters of the real systems depend on the States of the system. Nonstationary queueing systems as mathematical models of these real systems are more than adequate. These queueing systems are formalized on the basis of systems of differential equations. The purpose of the work. We have developed and investigated a mathematical model of the production process on the basis of nonstationary queueing systems. Production processes are considered In work with consequent time and cellular spatial structure typical of small serial type production. The methods used. Methods of the device queueing theory, methods of the decision of the systems of the differential firstorder equations, theory Markovskih processes. Result. A mathematical model of the production process was studied taking into account the parameters varying in time. The nonstationary characteristics of the production process have been identified depending on changes of intensities of the income and service of requests in time. Use got models allows most packed to present the process of the operating the production processes with consequent time and cellular spatial structure typical of small serial type production.
 Key words
 queuing system, nonstationary queueing system, unsteadiness, production processes
 Reference
 Dogadina E. P., Kholkina N. E. Mathematical Model of the Production Processes, Taking into Account Their Specific Features. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 19. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/01Dogadina.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Search Algorithms for Constrained PseudoBoolean Optimization
 Abstract
 Problem statement. The issue is the problem of optimizing real functions of binary variables that is the socalled pseudoBoolean optimization problem. In many practical problems, possible combinations of variables are restricted by constraints that narrow the set of admissible values of the control variables. At the same time these constraints (and an objective function) often have structural properties, inclusion of which in the optimization process can improve the efficiency of solving such problems. Furthermore, in many real problems of optimization a part of functions (criteria and constraints) or all functions are defined algorithmically, which makes it impossible to apply the standard algorithms and requires the development of search optimization procedures. Purpose. To justify, construct and research methods for constrained pseudoBoolean optimization problems with algorithmically given functions. Methods. Research of properties of the space of Boolean variables and detection of patterns for behavior of pseudoBoolean functions in the space of Boolean variables. Development of exact regular algorithms that implement properties of specific classes of problems. In the development of regular algorithms, the classes of unimodal, monotone and structurally monotone pseudoBoolean functions are considered. For largescale problems research of algorithms based on a random search method that search among the boundary points of the feasible set. Results. The new exact algorithms with analytical estimates of complexity for solving the constrained pseudoBoolean optimization problems. These algorithms realize information complexity of the problem classes. As well the new approximate algorithms are constructed for constrained optimization of monotone pseudoBoolean functions with a large number of variables. Practical relevance. The developed algorithms are useful for solving all practical problems which are reduced to optimization problems of pseudoBoolean functions. So, the problem of optimizing the capacity utilization of foundry is solved. The developed algorithms are used for finding logical patterns (used for building classifiers) in data that is the constraint pseudoBoolean optimization problem of large dimension.
 Key words
 pseudoBoolean functions, optimization, random search, greedy algorithm, regular optimization algorithm
 Reference
 Antamoshkin A. N., Masich I. S. Search Algorithms for Constrained PseudoBoolean Optimization. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 103145. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/06Antamoshkin.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Information Technology of Design of Automated Systems Control of Technological Processes
 Abstract
 Purpose. A common feature of all control processes is that they are informative as any process to achieve the objective requires the collection, processing and transmission of information. The development of computer technology allows faster processing and exchange of information. This reduces the time to perform the transaction with an information resource. The intensity of occurrence of failures increases and there is a loss of information that causes interruptions in the operation of control systems and increases economic costs. Currently remain unresolved problem of increasing the efficiency of the process of constructing models of control systems by improving ways to convert information and increase reliability by adapting technological operations to the failure of the actuators. The purpose of the present paper is to create and develop the information technology of synthesis of models of automated control systems, designed to reduce the complexity of process of construction models by improving methods of transformation information about the system, and the development of methods to increase reliability by adapting technological operations to the failure of the actuators. To reduce the complexity the development of algorithms of digital automata is proposed to apply the structural and functional models that are presented in the form of directed graphs. Methods. The methods based on the use the graph theory, logic algebra, theory of digital automata, system analysis, technologies of design software systems, Petri nets, theory of reliability and methods of technical diagnostics. Novelty. Novel features of the presented solution are the structural and functional models of digital automata of control actuators that reduce the complexity of development projects control means by transforming the information contained in the sequence diagram into an intermediate form suitable for the synthesis of digital automaton with the help of modern tools. The functional model to adapt control process to possible failures of the actuators also should be referred to novel features. Results. Using structural and functional models of digital automata for the synthesis of algorithms of automated control systems allows reducing the duration of the design models of digital automata control of filling and packaging machines. The improved method of modeling algorithms for automated control of filling and packaging machines allows forecasting the effects of technological equipment faults at the stage of debugging algorithms, which also reduces the complexity of troubleshooting. Practical relevance. Applying the proposed solution allows reducing technological losses of the package and packed product, as well as improve the quality of the products by reducing the time spent it without proper storage conditions for the repair filling machine and cut company expenses on recycling of production wastes. The implementation of the new technology allows you to convert the information contained in the sequence diagram in an intermediate form suitable for the synthesis of digital automaton with modern tools to evaluate alternative control algorithms and select the most efficient at the design stage of the system without implementing the entire system.
 Key words
 automated control system, information technology, technological operations, digital automata, structural and functional models, actuators, sequence diagram, filling and packaging machines
 Reference
 Ryabtsev V. G., Utkina T. Yu. Information Technology of Design of Automated Systems Control of Technological Processes. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 207239. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/09Ryabtsev.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Intelligent information systems

Models of System Dynamics Based on Fuzzy Relational Cognitive Maps
 Abstract
 Purpose. Fuzzy cognitive maps are intended for the formalization, analysis and modeling problems, semistructured systems and processes. Fuzzy relational cognitive maps provide expanded opportunities for solving these problems under uncertainty. Of particular interest is the use of these maps for analysis and modeling of system dynamics. This leads to the need to address the challenges of increasing uncertainty and intersection of fuzzy values of their basic sets. The purpose of this work is the development and study of models of system dynamics based on fuzzy relational cognitive maps, which ensure the preservation of fully fuzzy representation of the results at all stages of modeling, while avoiding the constantly increasing uncertainty and intersection of fuzzy values of their basic sets. Methods. Methods of theories of fuzzy sets, fuzzy relations, fuzzy computing and fuzzy cognitive modeling. Novelty. The proposed models of system dynamics based on fuzzy relational cognitive maps are characterized by elements of novelty through the use of resistant to the growing uncertainty of operations on fuzzy numbers and relations. All of this provides: first, a fully fuzzy representation of the values of concepts at all stages of modeling; second, the membership values and increments of the concepts in the family of fuzzy numbers; third, intersection of fuzzy values of their basic sets; fourth, the natural aggregation of the fuzzy values of the concepts. Results. The validity of the analysis and the quality modeling of problems of semistructured systems and processes under uncertainty will increase when using the proposed models. Practical relevance. The presented models of system dynamics based on fuzzy relational cognitive maps will be used to design software for analysis and modeling problems, semistructured systems and processes.
 Key words
 fuzzy relational cognitive map, fuzzy numbers and relations, model of system dynamics, semistructured systems and processes
 Reference
 Fedulov A. S., Borisov V. V. Models of System Dynamics Based on Fuzzy Relational Cognitive Maps. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 6680. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/04Fedulov.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Computing systems

Investigation of the Possibility of Import Substitution Microcontroller Atmel SAM D20 Domestic Chips
 Abstract
 Formulation of the problem: as a result of contemporary geopolitics in Russia imposed sanctions on imports of various hightech solutions of western production. Production of microcontrollers and processors have not been established in the modern world level ever since the collapse of the USSR. As is known, the processor  the main part of the computer hardware or a programmable logic controller, performing machine instructions, and therefore today without it can not do any one hightech device. Therefore, the relevance of this work is the task of finding domestic counterparts overseas microcontrollers and chip import substitution to the realities of sanctions. The aim is finding domestic counterparts processor family of the Atmel SAM D20, a comparison of their characteristics, as well as consideration of the evolution of these decisions and their future. Formulate proposals for import substitution. Result: The actual replacement of imports by domestic processors analogues produced at a given time, and planned for release in the near future. The characteristics of processors family SAM D20 the Atmel company, as well as the different technologies and peripheral output used in this family. The characteristics of the families of domestic microcontrollers and microprocessors, with the same architecture, features and interfaces, and other parameters of the following manufacturers: "Baikal Electronics", Group of companies "ELVIS" NIISI RAS Unicore Microsystems, Inc. "Angstrom" Nyima "Progress" STC "module", JSC "MCST", "IDMPLUS ", JSC "Multiclet", "KM211 Ltd.", JSC "ICC "Milandr”, NTLab, JSC "NIIET". A comparison of the characteristics of their family of SAM D20 and the integrated set of performance in different conditions and objectives conclusions on the possibility of its domestic import specific chips.
 Key words
 a microcontroller, a microprocessor chip, import substitution, domestic processors, comparison features, interface, performance
 Reference
 Aminev D. A., Ohlomenko I. V., Nikitenko M. V., Sachkova N. A., Guseva P. A. Investigation of the Possibility of Import Substitution Microcontroller Atmel SAM D20 Domestic Chips. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 310327. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/15Aminev.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Information processes and technologies. Acquisition, storage and processing of information

Sharpening of Video Frames for Improvement of Feature Points Detection
 Abstract
 Some visual tracking tasks are unable to operate stable for video with blurred frames because feature points detection is degraded on blur images. In the paper we concentrate on blurriness due to refocusing of camera optical system of mobile devices. Our aim is evaluation of influence of blur and sharpening on Harris corner and FAST keypoints detectors. We propose a quality criterion in order to be able to make numerical assessment of the influence. For enhancement of blurred frames we investigate two sharpening filters: local tone mapping decreases of edge transition slope length, unsharp mask via bilateral filter increases local contrast along edges. On data from KITTI Vision Benchmark Suite as well as video captured by smartphone we demonstrate that sharpening improves feature points detection for both Harris corner and FAST methods. A positive impact for FAST is significant, it may improve robustness of various computer vision systems.
 Key words
 sharpening, FAST keypoints, Harris corner, local tone mapping, unsharp mask
 Reference
 Turko S. A., Safonov I. V. Sharpening of Video Frames for Improvement of Feature Points Detection. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 288300. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/13Turko.pdf (accessed ).

Model of the Accounting of Value and Aging of Information at Estimation of Efficiency of Functioning of Systems of Information Support
 Abstract
 Purpose. The increase in quantity of information streams strengthens the problems connected with need of improvement of systems of information support. At adoption of information and administrative decisions it is necessary to consider quality of the arriving information. Known theories not fully consider semantics and pragmatics of information and influence of quality of information on achievement of the objectives of functioning of information systems. The purpose of work is development of model which will allow to consider influence of quality of information on efficiency of functioning of systems. Novelty: unlike known the presented model considers information value, and also influence of aging of information on efficiency of functioning of systems of information support. Methods. The solution of the problem of increase of efficiency of information support is possible due to development of the theory of information, cybernetics and the accounting of semantics and pragmatics of information. Result: use of the offered model allows to receive estimates of "real" speed of information transfer and quantity and information work. Practical importance: the presented model can be used during the developing of engineering techniques of estimation of quality and efficiency of functioning of systems of information support.
 Key words
 information support, information, semantics, pragmatics, value, usefulness, aging, information work
 Reference
 Paramonov I. Y. Model of the Accounting of Value and Aging of Information at Estimation of Efficiency of Functioning of Systems of Information Support. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 328334. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/16Paramonov.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Information security

Genome of Informatization and Corporate Immunology of Internet
 Abstract
 Purpose. The security of the Internet as set of software for corporate networks is an actual practical task. The Internet is represented as a joint complex system. The problem of functional safety the Internet as a set of software is studying in the paper. The security of the corporate network and user security affects on the safe of the Internet. The methods used. Factors influencing on the safety of the Internet, highlighted in the paper to assess its functional safety. Among these factors are highlighted  security software for corporate networks and the growth of dead code. The novelty of the work. Functional safety of Internet is examined from the point of view of safety of complex programs in corporate networks. In paper author used the analogy of development of information technologies with the evolution of the genetic system of humans. In the paper used the analogy of building information and software systems the Internet with the genetic system of living organisms and systems for the security of information  with the immune system of living organisms. Results. In the paper shows that the safety of Internet as set of software is determined by minimization of vulnerabilities of the used software and the level of protection of corporate networks in the Internet. Characteristics and indicators of information security separate software as part of network of the Internet differs considerably. Author offers new software for safe of Internet based on the immune concept of living organisms. Regulatory documents for the information security should consider it. Practical relevance. The results of the paper can be used to build the new complex systems information security of Internet which is based on immune principles of living organisms.
 Key words
 security, Internet, enterprise systems, threats, vulnerabilities
 Reference
 Osovetskiy L. G. Genome of Informatization and Corporate Immunology of Internet. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 191206. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/08Osovetskiy.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Logicalandprobabilisticinformational approach to the formation of a unified algorithm of research of information security protection
 Abstract
 Problem statement: in the doctrine of information security of the Russian Federation have shown shortcomings in its provision at the present stage. One of them is: "the inconsistency and poor legal regulation of social relations in the information sphere, which leads to serious negative consequences for the individual, society, state. The aim of this is the ability to create a single logical approach to the research of information security of the object of protection in the presence of threats of violations with unacceptable consequences. Methods used: the methodology of research on the problem form methods of attachment, analogies, associations and asymptotic approximations of the theoretical and effective linguistic, semantic, mathematical modeling methods, which are based on a combination of modeling methods by the formula BackusNaur form. Novelty: the formation of a unified approach in terms of information security of object is based on syntactic, semantic and mathematical modeling of conventionally interconnected development of the external and internal environment of object theoretical event logical and empirical methods, coordinated by objective, place and time, the range of field conditions and problematic situations. Result: formed a theoretical approach to the system mathematical description of the concepts of information security. Practical relevance a unified approach to the logical description of concepts in the research of information security can reliably solve the technical problem of providing methods and means useful from the point of view of achieving the main goal  protection from threats of violation of information security of the object and sustained (anticrisis) development in shaping and projected environment of the twentyfirst century.
 Key words
 object protection, information security, methods and systems modeling
 Reference
 Zhidko E. A. Logicalandprobabilisticinformational approach to the formation of a unified algorithm of research of information security protection. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 262277. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/11Zhidko.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Communication systems and telecommunication network

The Timeliness Indicators of Traffic Service in Queue Systems Pa/M/1 Based on Approximation of Imitating Modeling Results
 Abstract
 Problem statement: the volume of the multimedia traffic which is pitched through telecommunication networks is grows. Thus the multimedia traffic possesses property of the difficult structural. This property reduces timeliness of service of the traffic in network knots. These facts do actual research of timeliness of service of the traffic in network nodes. The article purpose. The analysis of timeliness for service of difficult traffic in network nodes on basis simulation modeling and approximation of the received results is the purpose of this article. Used methods. Models of queue systems M/M/1 (for the simple traffic) and Pa/M/1 (for traffic with difficult structure) have been used for modeling of service of traffic in network node. Packet delay time in node model has been used as meaning of timeliness of traffic service. Simulation modeling has been selected as a research method. The environment imitative modeling GPSS World has been selected as research toolkit. Twolevel approximation for results of simulation modeling has been used for make analytical expressions for the analysis of dependence of timeliness of traffic service from level of node loading and difficult traffic level. Novelty. Analytical expression for meaning of timeliness of service of difficult traffic simultaneously considering both loading level of node, and complexity traffic level are novelty of paper. Results and practical relevance. Analytical expression for estimation of timeliness of difficult traffic service which was received in this article. That expression can be used at the decision of applied tasks of designing and analysis of a communication network. Especially for a communication network with transmission of the multimedia traffic and there are conditions of high loading is conducted. Besides, this expression can be used for check reliability of results before led researches based on analytical valuation methods of quality of service in queue systems.
 Key words
 the traffic, Pareto distribution, traffic processing, package switching
 Reference
 Ushanev K. V., Makarenko S. I. The Timeliness Indicators of Traffic Service in Queue Systems Pa/M/1 Based on Approximation of Imitating Modeling Results. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 4265. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/03Ushanev.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Methodological Apparatus of the Integrated Forecasting of the Development of Infocommunications
 Abstract
 The purpose of paper is formation of the methodological base for the infocommunications development. This methodology is based on the revealed patterns of scientific and technical progress. Methods. Methodology of longterm forecasts were carried out on the basis of a methods of extrapolation, methods of structural analysis and factor analysis, models of autoregression, models of correlation. The final result of this paper was formation of the methodological apparatus for the integrated longterm forecasting of the infocommunications development on the basis of economic and technical factors. Practical relevance. Methodological apparatus wich was synthesized by authors allow make longterm forecasting for development of the infocommunications area. Longterm forecasting based on economic factors and technical factors with the development of the national economy.
 Key words
 infocommunications, information and economic law, statistical methods of correlation and regression, trend and factor models
 Reference
 Kuzovkova T. A., Gencer M. A., Kuzovkov A. D. Methodological Apparatus of the Integrated Forecasting of the Development of Infocommunications. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 146190. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/07Kuzovkova.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Determining the Optimal Location of TETRA Standard Base Stations to Create a System of Definitions and the Transfer a CoordinateTime Information on the Means of Communication
 Abstract
 A promising and relying on modern world practice the direction of further improvement of the system of technical maintenance of communication is to define and transfer a coordinatetime information on the means of communication in the mode of the time close to real digital map of the automated workplaces officials controls. Purpose of research is to develop a control system, positioning and transfer of information on the technical condition of communication with the display of information on digital maps of the automated workplaces officials TMC. Formulation of the problem: an integral part of the research is to calculate the smallest number of base stations for professional trunked radio communication systems, as well as the need to find placements base stations on the graph of the road network of the NorthWest District of the Western Region. In solving the problem there is a limit to the distance between each node of the network of roads and the nearest base station is identical to the radius of the station steps. Methods used: graph theory, algorithm for finding the pcenters. The novelty: is that the application of a proven algorithm for finding the p centers solved the problem of minimizing the number of base stations and identifies their locations. The result: the number of base stations and their location on the graph of the road network. The practical significance is to reduce material costs for the introduction of the equipment, the TETRA standard devices and tools in the development of control systems, positioning and transfer of information on the technical condition means of communication. The implementation of the algorithm on PC will reduce the time of calculation for the graph of the road network.
 Key words
 system of technical maintenance of communication, means of communication, radio frequency identification technology, finding the pcenters
 Reference
 Semenov S. S., Smoleha V. P., Plut M. N., Komornikov P. M., Smoleha A. V. Determining the Optimal Location of TETRA Standard Base Stations to Create a System of Definitions and the Transfer a CoordinateTime Information on the Means of Communication. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 301309. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/14Semenov.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Systems for ensuring of safety and security

Quantum Cascade Lasers and their Application in Safety and Communication Systems
 Abstract
 The purpose of this paper is to describe current level of development of quantumcascade lasers (CCL), their characteristics and capabilities, and assess the feasibility of using CCL in the security systems and communications. The used research method – method of calculating the range of the recognition and targeting in thermal imaging devices (TVP), is made on the basis of microbolometer matrices, when combined with CCL Teor. Novelty: this was the first time when Author considering the use of CCL in the security systems and communications. Similar to the known publications on these issues are absent. Results: created a VIP with infrared (IR) illuminators or designators on the basis of the CCL in fixed, mobile, transportable and portable (headmounted). The VIPs feature in that it ensures the preservation of the range of the recognition and targeting at the fall of the temperature contrast of the object with the background not less than 10 times compared with a normalized value. System clock and allweather operation created with the application of CCL on the basis of specific examples, including a universal sighting complexes, combined infrared illuminatorstarget designators, laser rangefinders and lidars. Practical value: the results can be used to create instruments for observation, aiming, driving patrol vehicles, aiming and targeting, accurate measurement of range and speed weatherproof and persistent action in the interest of the security services and police, as well as all weather systems atmospheric laser communication. The use of CCL in the inspection system based on the use of Trays will work in the range of to 300 microns and to create a portable and mobile equipment. The use of CCL in atmospheric laser communication systems to ensure allweather capability. The prospects for further development of the results – application in devices more powerful CCL with power exceeding 100 watts in CW and in pulsed mode at room temperature, do high efficiency. CCL when working in continuous mode above 30%, the creation of CCL for shortwave spectral region from 2 to 4 μm, a gap of 20 to 70 μm in the working range of wavelengths CCL, increase the power of terahertz radiation CCL and do their work in thermoelectric cooling. Conclusions: the new generation of devices for security systems and communications allows you to eliminate the known disadvantage of the NT – the sharp decline in their range at low temperature of the object contrasts with the background. For measurements of distance, speed and the atmospheric connection is to provide yearround and allweather performance.
 Key words
 quantum cascade laser, the working region of the spectrum, output power, efficiency, terahertz wavelength range, security system, atmospheric communication, range, speed, measurement accuracy, field of view angle
 Reference
 Volkov V. G. Quantum Cascade Lasers and their Application in Safety and Communication Systems. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 1041. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/02Volkov.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).
Modeling of complex organizationaltechnical systems

Interval Problem of Optimization of Prime Cost and Efficiency of Production
 Abstract
 Relevance. In article the existing approaches to an actual problem of optimization of prime cost and efficiency of production released by the production systems functioning in the conditions of uncertainty are considered. The exact problem definition of conditional optimization of prime cost and efficiency of production of a production system at interval uncertainty of parameters is given function and restrictions. Criterion function of system is considered nonlinear. The purpose. The aim of the article is to propose of idea of the solution of a problem of conditional nonlinear optimization of system at interval uncertainty of its parameters. This idea is based on rules of the mathematical theory of comparison of the intervals allowing to replace comparison of intervals and allocation of a bigger (smaller) interval with comparison of their lower and upper bounds and allocation of bigger (smaller) border. Method. On the basis of the stated idea the method of a determinization of the solution of a problem of conditional nonlinear optimization at interval uncertainty of parameters of the optimized system by its data to two completely certain problems of conditional optimization of the same type is formulated and reasonable. Novelty. It is formulated and proved the offer defining the solution of a problem of conditional nonlinear optimization at interval uncertainty of parameters of the optimized system through solutions of two completely certain problems of optimization of the same type. It is also formulated and proved the theorem defining a necessary and sufficient condition of existence of the solution of a problem of conditional nonlinear optimization at interval uncertainty of its parameters. Result. The algorithm of the solution of a problem of conditional nonlinear optimization at interval uncertainty of parameters of the optimized system which is based on a determinization method is constructed. The example of work of algorithm is given. Comparison of the offered approach to the solution of problems of conditional nonlinear optimization with other approaches is carried out. Merits and demerits of various approaches are specified.
 Key words
 nonlinear optimization, uncertainty, optimization at interval uncertainty, a determinization method
 Reference
 Levin V. I., Nemkova E. A. Interval Problem of Optimization of Prime Cost and Efficiency of Production. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 240261. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/10Levin.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).

Analysis of Interval Functions by Methods of Interval Differential Calculus
 Abstract
 Relevance. The existing approaches to the calculation, analysis, synthesis and optimization of systems in conditions of uncertainty. The studying of uncertain systems is formulated in the form of tasks of calculation, analysis and synthesis of various nondeterministic functions with parameters that serve as the respective characteristics of these systems. These problems are much more difficult their deterministic counterparts which should be solved in the study of systems with deterministic (exactly known) parameters. Complication is due to the fact that the algebra of undetermined numbers more complicated than algebra of deterministic numbers. The purpose. This article is formulated and described in detail the problem of calculating and analyzing the behavior of a particular function which is not fully given (only up to a range of values). Method. To solve this problem there is provided a method of determination, which reduces the problem to the two same – for the upper and lower boundary functions of the original incompletely defined function. In this method we use the apparatus of interval mathematics and intervaldifferential calculus. We distinguish different types of possible behavior of interval functions (consistency, increase, decrease, expansion, restriction) and various types of extreme points of functions (on a sample, the maximum point, a minimum point, the point of maximum extension, the minimum extension point). Novelty. Theorems for defining the areas of the different behavior of interval functions and terms with various kinds of extreme are proved. Result. We considered in detail and illustrated by example the work of the proposed algorithm of determination for analyzing the behavior of interval functions.
 Key words
 optimization, uncertainty, exactly determined function, interval function, analysis of behavior of interval functions
 Reference
 Levin V. I. Analysis of Interval Functions by Methods of Interval Differential Calculus. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2016, no. 1, pp. 335350. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201601/17Levin.pdf (accessed ) (In Russian).