# 3 2023
Information processes and technologies. Acquisition, storage and processing of information

Assessment of the feasibity of the use of specialized neural networks to increase the resolution of images obtained by remote sensing of the Earth
 Abstract
 Purpose. Images obtained from earth remote sensing devices may be of low quality due to the imperfection of the installed vision systems and insufficient channel width for their transmission in real time. Known classical methods of digital image processing are not suitable for increasing the resolution of images. The problem of super resolution of such images can be solved using alternative methods based on deep machine learning. The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the quality and efficiency of image resolution enhancement using various neural network models, which will allow us to conclude that the known metrics are applicable when choosing neural network solutions for various categories of images. Methods. Image classification using spectral image analysis methods. Solving the problem of super resolution and using machine learning methods, using generativeadversarial and convolutional neural networks. Reference coefficients, based on pixel comparison, nonreference coefficients (PIQE, NIQE, BRISQUE), whose work is based on statistical evaluation, as well as metrics based on image similarity, for the calculation of which crosscorrelation and spectral analysis is used, were used as performance evaluation metrics. Novelty. The novelty of the presented solution is the use of image classification based on the energy of the highfrequency zones of the spectrum. Also, the elements of novelty include the determination of the dependence of the use of metrics to assess the effectiveness of the use of specialized neural networks while increasing the resolution for different categories of images obtained from the technical vision systems of earth remote sensing devices. Results. Carrying out a computational experiment on 10,000 images showed a change in the estimate of the efficiency of increasing the resolution by 4 times by nonstandard metrics, depending on the category of the image. A limitation of the use of the PSNR and SSIM coefficients in evaluating the efficiency of solving the superresolution problem is revealed. The study shows the potential use of metrics based on the calculation of kurtosis and similarity of spectra as an addition to classical nonreference ones, and also reveals the prospects for developing new metrics based on them. Practical relevance. The results presented in the study are proposed to be used to decide on the effectiveness of the application of machine learning methods when increasing the resolution of images and to determine the admissibility of the transition from the stage of preprocessing of images obtained from remote sensing devices to subsequent processing.
 Key words
 earth remote sensing, vision systems, super resolution, machine learning methods, image spectral analysis
 Reference
 Fomina E. S. Assessment of the feasibity of the use of specialized neural networks to increase the resolution of images obtained by remote sensing of the Earth. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 7190. DOI: 10.24412/24109916202337190 (in Russian).
Communication systems and telecommunication network

Evaluation of the efficiency of a turbo code built on the basis of a block code when decoding in accordance with the criterion of maximum a posteriori probability
 Abstract
 Problem statement: correction codes are now widely used to correct errors that occur when transmitting information via communication channels. In data transmission channels with a high probability of error, turbo codes are the most effective. When constructing turbo codes based on block and convolutional codes, various decoding algorithms are used. When decoding turbo codes based on a block code using a syndrome grid, it is possible to use decoding algorithms used to decode turbo codes based on convolutional codes. The aim of the work is to evaluate the efficiency of a turbo code built on the basis of a block code when decoding in accordance with the MAP algorithm, previously used for decoding turbo codes built on the basis of convolutional codes. It is proposed to evaluate the correcting ability of the turbo code, and its ability to adapt to changes in the characteristics of the data transmission channel. Methods used: turbo code decoding was carried out using the MAP algorithm. The decoding process is modeled in MS Excel and in the Python programming language. In the program text, random number arrays were generated using the «scipy» library and its «stats» subpackage. When deriving the formula for calculating the probability of an erroneous bit appearing in a decoded information message, the provisions of probability theory were used. The provisions of probability theory were also used to form a soft detector output. Novelty: both the use of the MAP algorithm itself for decoding the turbo code created on the basis of the block code, and the obtained results of the study of the correcting ability of the turbo code and the possibility of adapting its parameters to changes in the characteristics of the channel, have elements of novelty. Result: the conducted study of the corrective ability showed the same efficiency of the studied turbo code when compared with a turbo code created on the basis of a systematic convolutional code with the same number of information and code bits. The simulation showed the possibility of adapting the parameters of the turbo code under study to changes in the characteristics of the data transmission channel by splitting out code bits in the amount of no more than three bits to decode the hard solution of the detector, and no more than five bits for the case of decoding the soft solution of the detector. The possibility of adapting turbo code parameters by changing the number of decoding iterations is also investigated. Practical significance: the presented studies have shown good efficiency of the turbo code created on the basis of block code, using the wellstudied MAP algorithm when decoding, as well as the available capabilities of such a turbo code to adapt to changes in the characteristics of the data transmission channel. In order to study the effectiveness of the turbo code built on the basis of the Hemming code, a software simulator in the Python programming language was developed.
 Key words
 error correction code, turbo code, MAP algorithm, block codes, convolutional codes syndrome grid
 Reference
 Sidorenko A. A. Evaluation of the efficiency of a turbo code built on the basis of a block code when decoding in accordance with the criterion of maximum a posteriori probability. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 2943. DOI: 10.24412/24109916202332943 (in Russian).

Semantic infocommunications as the next stage in the development of communication
 Abstract
 Purpose. Currently, telecommunications systems are experiencing tremendous rates of development. At the same time, one of the reasons is the active introduction of artificial neural networks and deep learning technologies. This feature makes it possible to implement a fundamentally new approach based on the extraction of semantics in the construction of communication systems applicable to various fields from civil to military orientation, focusing on the basic meaning of the transmitted information in contrast to the traditional form of binary stream transmission characteristic of systems of previous generations. The task of the work is to study semantic info communications. The aim of the work is to form an analytical review based on the aggregation and structuring of information about semantic infocommunication systems from the origin of the concept and its foundations to modern implementations of various approaches, depending on the type of information transmitted at the application level. Methods. The implementation of semantic infocommunications is based on the apparatus of higher mathematics. In particular, linear algebra is the main tool of mathematical calculations necessary for the implementation of an artificial neural network. A neural network is responsible for extracting semantics from transmitted data and is a key element of signal processing in the structure of a semantic infocommunication system. Results and novelty. An element of the practical novelty of the work is the systematized features of constructing a communication system with the semantic level of information processing. In particular, a general block diagram is given, the main implementation approaches for various types of data, such as audio, text and graphic data, are considered. The main emphasis is placed on a detailed analysis of the case of transmission and reception of graphic data. The structure and typical approach of semantics extraction based on convolutional neural network for image processing are derived. The main indicators of noise resistance are structured. Practical relevance. The presented information will be useful in scientific and engineering practice in the study and development of semantic infocommunications.
 Key words
 semantic infocommunications, semantic coding, heterogeneous communication systems, cellular communication, communication system architecture, neural networks, semantic interaction, convolutional neural networks
 Reference
 Vershkov P. A., Kazachkov V. O., Shevtsov V. A. Semantic infocommunications as the next stage in the development of communication. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 267292. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233267292 (in Russian).
Electronic and radio systems

Experimental study of stripline protection devices based on modal decomposition technology
 Abstract
 Purpose: Rapid development of radioelectronic equipment (REE) has resulted in more compact and functional devices. However, this process also made them more susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). One of the most dangerous types of EMI is powerful ultrawideband (UWB) pulse interference. Noteworthy is the approach to protection against UWB interferences, based on decomposing the excitation pulse in stripline structures. A previously proposed methodology allows protective meander lines with asymmetric crosssections to be synthesized using an original mathematical apparatus and a suite of numerical methods that are employed for modeling and optimization. This work presents the results of experimental investigations into the characteristics of protection devices developed using this methodology. The aim of this work is to experimentally investigate stripline protection devices that are based on modal decomposition technology. To achieve this, it is necessary to develop and fabricate prototypes of the protection devices, obtain their frequency and timedomain characteristics, and compare the results with preliminary numerical simulations and measurements. Methods: The computational experiment involved the use of numerical simulation with quasistatic and electrodynamic approaches to compare simulation results and measurements. A vector network analyzer (VNA) was utilized for measuring the frequency characteristics (Sparameters), and based on these measurements, the timedomain responses to typical interference excitations were computed. Nnorms were calculated to assess the response characteristics in the time domain. To evaluate the radiated emissions and susceptibility of the prototypes, the frequencydependent Sparameters were measured using a fourport VNA and a TEM cell, followed by their conversion to electric field strength and voltage at the ends of the prototypes. Novelty: For the first time, the timedomain and frequency characteristics of passive stripline protection devices with asymmetric crosssections, developed using the previously proposed methodology and original mathematical apparatus, have been experimentally obtained. Results: Two prototypes of protective devices have been developed and manufactured. The measurements in the frequency domain revealed a complex multiresonant nature of the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficient S21 due to reflections, resulting in relatively low bandpass frequencies of the prototypes. A comparative analysis of the voltage waveforms at the output of the prototypes demonstrated good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Additionally, by calculating the Nnorms based on the measured voltage waveforms, a significant attenuation of interference characteristics at the output of the prototypes was observed. This suggests that the manufactured devices exhibit higher interference reduction properties compared to the results of preliminary simulation. The analysis of radiated emissions showed that resonance frequencies can lead to the formation of electromagnetic field of significant intensity. The amplitude of this field may not comply with the requirements of regulatory documents, which should be taken into account when placing sensitive circuits near protective devices. Furthermore, susceptibility analysis of the prototypes revealed that the signals of relatively high amplitudes can be induced at resonance frequencies.
 Key words
 electromagnetic compatibility, protection, measurements, ultrawideband interference, modal distortion, meander turn
 Reference
 Karri S., Kenzhegulova Z. M., Surovtsev R. S. Experimental study of stripline protection devices based on modal decomposition technology. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 128. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233128 (in Russian).

Models and methods of electrostatic discharge exposure used in simulating, designing and testing of radio electronic equipment
 Abstract
 Purpose. As the degree of integration of electronic components increases, the susceptibility of modern radioelectronic equipment (REE) to the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) increases. Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is one of the sources of EMI, which has a negative impact on the operation of REE. High sensitivity of electronic components to the impact of ESD leads to reversible and irreversible failures, which should be taken into account at the design stage of critical REE. Consideration of different pulses of impact of ESD with individual current waveform will allow to estimate the degree of susceptibility of designed REE. The aim of the work is to systematize existing analytical and circuit models and methods of ESD influence on REE. Methods. Mathematical and schematic specification of ESD current waveforms was used to analyze the models. Novelty. For the first time we systematized analytical and circuit models determining the ESD current waveform by the degree of susceptibility of REE. Results. The current waveform impact of ESD on REE by models of human body, mechanical, as well as charged devices, printed circuit board and cable are presented. An ESD simulator by different human body models is described and their current waveforms are calculated. The calculated current waveforms are compared with the waveforms presented in the standard as well as with measured waveforms. Nontraditional methods of studying the effect of ESD on the test object are presented. Practical relevance. The presented models and methods of ESD influence will allow to analyze the susceptibility of various REE to the influence of ESD at the design stage.
 Key words
 electromagnetic compatibility, radioelectronic equipment, electrostatic discharge, current waveform, susceptibility, analytical model, circuit model
 Reference
 Drozdova A. A., Komnatnov M. E. Models and methods of electrostatic discharge exposure used in simulating, designing and testing of radio electronic equipment. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 4470. DOI: 10.24412/24109916202334470 (in Russian).

Quasistatic analysis and optimization of a multilayer PCB with modal reservation and a twosided routing
 Abstract
 Problem statement: For the development of radioelectronic equipment (REA), attention must be paid to ensuring functional safety and electromagnetic compatibility. This process should involve all stages of equipment manufacturing. Conductive ultrawideband interference (UWBI) is a dangerous type of interference for REA. Modal reservation (MR) is used to prevent the influence of UWB and to increase the functional safety of the REA. There are a number of ways to layout printed circuit boards (PCBs) with MR, but their disadvantage is the complexity of tracing with a large number of electronic circuit elements. However, there is a method that allows the conductor tracing of electronic circuits with a large number of components by arranging the conductors on the outer and inner layers of the PCB and tracing them orthogonally. At the same time, the analysis and optimisation of PCB structures developed by this method have not been carried out. Meanwhile, when trying to optimise the parameters of structures with conductors on the inner and outer layers of the PCB (their geometrical and electrophysical parameters are common), changing the initial set of parameters of the crosssection of the structures led to a change in the modulus of the difference between the delay per unit length and the average geometrical impedances of even and odd modes in different ways. For example, if modulus of the difference between the delay per unit length increased for one structure when increasing one general parameter, it could decrease for another structure. This leads to difficulties in the process of optimisation of these structures on one PCB, because without information on the nature of dependences of characteristics on the crosssectional parameters of these structures it is impossible to correctly determine the optimal common set of parameters. Therefore, when determining the maximum values of modulus of the difference between the delay per unit length, with and without matching, for these structures, it is necessary to carry out a comprehensive study including analysis and optimisation of the structures The purpose of this work is to conduct such a study. Methods used: Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyse the dependencies of the structures considered, and heuristic search and genetic algorithm were used for optimisation. Novelty: For the first time, the dependences of the parameters of structures with MR conductors on the outer and inner layers are analyzed, and their optimization is carried out. Result: Information was obtained on the nature of the dependences of the parameters of each of the structures under study, and the optimal sets of parameters were determined. The possibilities of obtaining zero sensitivity of the characteristics of structures to changes in individual parameters are revealed. Practical relevance: The data obtained can be used to develop software with MR.
 Key words
 electromagnetic compatibility, printed circuit board, modal filtering, modal reservation, univariate analysis, multivariate analysis, heuristic search, genetic algorithm
 Reference
 Morozov S. R., Medvedev A. V. Quasistatic analysis and optimization of a multilayer PCB with modal reservation and a twosided routing. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 91106. DOI: 10.24412/241099162023391106 (in Russian).

Experimental investigations of periodic microwave structures with high impedance surface properties
 Abstract
 Purpose. The modern trend towards miniaturization and higher performance, leads to an increase in clock frequencies, data transmission speeds, increased mounting density, and integration of radioelectronic equipment (REE) into unified systems. This, in turn, makes modern highspeed systems very sensitive to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In addition, REE used in critical areas such as military, industrial, mining, are subjected to harsh operating conditions in the form of elevated and subzero temperatures. In turn, traditional interference protection devices have a narrow range of operating frequencies due to their parasitic parameters, large size and limited operating temperature range. In these conditions it is expedient to use a conductive pattern in the layers of the PCB, made in a special way, to protect the PCB power supply circuits from conductive EMI. Such a technical solution has minimal dimensions, low cost, is simple to manufacture according to the technological processes used by PCB manufacturers and is able to operate in a wide temperature range depending on the current load. To solve this problem, it is proposed to investigate periodic structures with high impedance surface (HIS) properties. The aim of the work is to investigate periodic HIS structures to ensure the power integrity (PI) of REE under the influence of ambient air temperature from minus 60 to +30?С. The methods: used to measure the frequency characteristics (Sparameters) are suggested to use a vector network analyzer (VNA), and on their basis to calculate the time responses to the impact of pulse interference. To assess the heating of the conducting pattern it is proposed to use a Ktype thermocouple, together with a universal voltmeter, the current load is set by the electric current source. In this case, conditions of wide temperature range are created by means of thermal chamber. Novelty: for the first time the frequency characteristics of double helix HISstructures for providing PI have been experimentally obtained. On the basis of frequency characteristics the impact of impulse interference on the studied HISstructures is estimated, and also the comparison of the obtained results is made. Time dependences of the conductive pattern heating under the conditions of ambient air temperature from minus 60 to +30?С were obtained. Result: Prototypes of HISstructures in different configurations were designed and manufactured. Their Sparameters were measured; in the frequency range from 0.01 to 10 GHz. HISstructures allow suppression of conducted noise emission up to minus 60 dB at some frequencies, and in the range from 2 to 10 GHz not less than 25 dB. Evaluation of the voltage response at the output of the structures under the influence of pulse interference was performed. The amplitude of the pulse at the output of all the structures decreases significantly, the minimum value is 13.2 mV, and the maximum 57 mV. The output pulse duration increases in the range from 1.91 to 2.42 times. The effect of a current load, 5 A, on the heating of the conductive pattern under conditions of exposure to different ambient air temperatures was investigated. Measurements were carried out in the thermal chamber at temperatures of minus 60, 0 and +30?С. The maximum heating of the structure was revealed in the structure with meander, the temperature increase was 58.7?С, and the temperature of the conducting pattern was 88.7?С. Practical Significance: The presented periodic HISstructures can be used in the design of PCB power circuits to provide the PI of the REE.
 Key words
 periodic structure, impedance, noise emission, Sparameters, impulse, temperature
 Reference
 Khramtsov M. V., Zabolotsky A.M. Experimental investigations of periodic microwave structures with high impedance surface properties. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 107123. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233107123 (in Russian).

Modal decomposition of interference in a coupled microstrip line when the signal conductors are distant from each other
 Abstract
 The problem: Powerful ultrawideband (UWB) pulses of nanosecond and subnanosecond range can penetrate into various nodes, blocks and circuits of radioelectronic equipment (REA). This can result in damage to integrated circuits and burnout of components, resulting in partial or complete failure of the equipment. There are solutions for protection under the impact of UWB interference, including filters. A number of works are devoted to UWB interference filters on the basis of microstrip structures, which include modal filters (MF). A disadvantage of MFs is the need to trace or arrange conductors in proximity to each other, which increases the likelihood of simultaneous mechanical or thermal damage. However, when conductors are separated from each other, the interference immunity due to modal distortions disappears. Thus, it is important to identify ways to prevent simultaneous damage to both signal conductors, while preserving the noise immunity provided by modal filtering. The aim of the work is to preserve the effect of modal filtering of interference when the signal conductors are removed from each other. The methods: Quasistatic simulationg of the time response in the frequency domain is performed, using the method of moments to calculate the matrices of the running parameters. It is proposed to add another bonding conductor over the signal conductors, covering their full width, which will allow maintaining electromagnetic connection between signal conductors, including at their distance from each other. The novelty: There are presented new ways of realization of chains with modal redundancy (MR), to increase electromagnetic coupling between transmission line conductors, from two applications for the invention. The result: The use of the presented solution allows increasing reliability while preserving the interferencesuppressing properties provided by the modal decomposition of the interfering signal. Practical significance: The presented method opens up new opportunities for application of MF in development of printed circuit boards with MR, namely, it allows removing the redundant conductors from each other in critical systems, such as unmanned aerial vehicles.
 Key words
 modal redundancy, electromagnetic compatibility, ultrawideband interference, functional safety, mirrorsymmetric structure, interconnections, transmission line
 Reference
 Ivantsov I. A. Modal decomposition of interference in a coupled microstrip line when the signal conductors are distant from each other. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 124133. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233124133 (in Russian).

Approaches to Ensuring Electromagnetic Compatibility of RadioElectronic Equipment as Part of the EMIBased Functional Destruction Means for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
 Abstract
 Problem statement. Due to the constant progress in the development of modern radioelectronic equipment (REE), there is growing attention from the scientific community towards ensuring the proper level of electromagnetic environment for their correct operation. It is known that various types of electromagnetic interference (EMI) can have a detrimental impact on the performance of critical components of REE. Therefore, there is a need to develop effective methods and technologies to protect REE from the destructive effects of EMI. In this study, EMIbased functional destruction means, which utilize powerful microwave radiation generators, are considered as sources of EMI for countering unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The complexity of achieving selectivity in the microwave radiation generators concerning the targeted REE can lead to malfunctions in the internal components of radioelectronic systems such as receivers, transmitters, signal generators, control devices, stabilization and command formation systems, and electronic computing devices. This fact emphasizes the importance of ensuring electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between EMIbased functional destruction means and other REE within the UAV counteraction complex. Additionally, it is crucial to ensure EMC for «friendly» UAVs that may be within the range of the EMIbased functional destruction means. The purpose of this work is to present preliminary results on the creation, structuring and detailing of new approaches to ensuring the EMC of REE as part of a complex for countering UAVs using EMIbased functional destruction means. The methods used in this study include a quasistatic simulation system based on the method of moments and optimization using a simple genetic algorithm, modified evolutionary strategies algorithm, and random search method. The optimization is performed based on an objective function that includes two criteria: amplitude and matching one. The measurements were conducted using a Tektronix DSA 8300 oscilloscope and «Panorama» R4226 vector network analyzer. Novelty. For the first time, a combination of various approaches and methods within a unified methodology for EMC ensuring for UAVs and their counteraction complexes using EMIbased functional destruction means is proposed. This is supported by the application of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) as part of a diversionary approach, modal filtration, modal filters (MF) based on cable structures, and software tools, including optimization capabilities of MF using evolutionary algorithms and the random search method. Results. The feasibility of the proposed methods and approaches has been demonstrated through several examples. In terms of using TRIZ as part of the diversionary approach, the main principles of TRIZ and the diversionary approach applicable to the task of EMC ensuring for UAVs under the influence of EMIbased functional destruction means have been formulated. An approximate algorithm for using TRIZ as part of the diversionary approach in the task of EMC ensuring for UAVs, specifically when exposed to EMIbased functional destruction means, has been outlined, and two scenarios of the excitation of highpower microwave interference on the external antenna and connection system of UAVs have been detailed. Regarding modal filtration, the main MF applicable to the task has been identified. In terms of MF based on cable structures, simulation and measurement of characteristics of experimental models of such MF under the excitation of highpower microwave interference have been performed. Pathways for the modernization of such MF for use in real UAV configurations have been specified. In terms of optimization, the optimization of two MF (with different crosssectional geometries) based on two criteria using three algorithms has been considered. Practical relevance. The structured methods and approaches within the unified methodology for EMC ensuring for UAVs and their counteraction complexes using EMIbased functional destruction means, as well as the technical solutions derived from it, can be valuable tools for developers and engineers of EMIbased functional destruction means and UAV complexes to ensure the protection of REE from the destructive EMI effects. These tools can be applied during the production stage or for the modernization of existing systems.
 Key words
 Highpower microwave interference, electromagnetic compatibility, unmanned aerial vehicles, TRIZ, modal filtration, optimization, functional destruction, electromagnetic interference
 Reference
 Belousov A. O. Approaches to Ensuring Electromagnetic Compatibility of RadioElectronic Equipment as Part of the EMIBased Functional Destruction Means for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 134196. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233134196 (in Russian).

Use of Adaptive Cross Approximation and Block Iterative Solution of a Matrix Equations Sequence in Multivariate Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines by the Method of Moments
 Abstract
 Purpose. Performance evaluation of adaptive cross approximation and block iterative solution of a sequence of matrix equations as applied to multivariate analysis of multiconductor transmission lines. Methods. Method of moments, block iterative stabilized biconjugate gradient method (BlBiCGStab), method of adaptive cross approximation. Novelty. A method for multivariate analysis of multiconductor transmission lines is proposed, characterized by the joint use of adaptive crossapproximation and block iterative solution of a sequence of matrix equations. Results. On the example of four multiconductor transmission lines with the number of conductors from 2 to 4 for their multivariant (up to 100 per parameter) analysis when varying 15 geometric parameters, both in narrow and wide limits, the use of block iterative solution of the sequence of matrix equations is investigated, showing a decrease in the required solution time by an average of 1.3 times. Also, on the example of two multiconductor transmission lines, the joint use of adaptive cross approximation and block iterative solution of a sequence of matrix equations is investigated, showing a reduction in the amount of required machine memory by a factor of 3.6 while increasing the required solution time by a factor of 2.6. All results are obtained with deviation from the Gauss method not more than 1%. Practical relevance. With respect to multivariate analysis of multiconductor transmission lines, the possibilities of reducing the required machine memory and time by using the methods of adaptive cross approximation and BlBiCGStab are revealed. Thus, adaptive cross approximation is an effective means of performing calculations when frequent segmentation is required and the available machine memory is limited.
 Key words
 multiconductor transmission line, multivariate analysis, method of moments, block iterative method BlBiCGStab, adaptive cross approximation
 Reference
 Maksimov A. E. Use of Adaptive Cross Approximation and Block Iterative Solution of a Matrix Equations Sequence in Multivariate Analysis of Multiconductor Transmission Lines by the Method of Moments. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 197226. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233197226 (in Russian).
Modeling of complex organizationaltechnical systems

Model for assessing the stability of an aerospace defense control system in conflict with aerospace attack means
 Abstract
 Relevance. Increasing the stability of the aerospace defense control system (ASDCS) are a relevant task as military and political tensions between the Russian Federation and the enemy countries are increasing. In case if this tensions escalate into an combat conflict, the United States (US) has developed the operational and strategic concept of a "Prompt Global Strike" (PGS), which assumes a rapid simultaneous strike of a large number of highprecision weapons (HPW), primarily cruise missiles, at administrative and military centers of Russia. At the same time, the first echelon of the PGS will consist of aerospace attack means (ASAM), which should hit ASDCS elements to reduce its effectiveness ASDCS when subsequent echelons of the BSU will pass. That is, the task of increasing the stability of ASDCS in the conditions of the impact of ASAM of the first echelon of the BSU is relevant. The aim of the work is to develop the model for the stability assessing of ASDCS in conflict with the ASAM. The material of the article is planned to be used for the development and research of models for the development and forecasting of the results of the conflict interaction of ASDCS and enemy's ASAM, as well as for the study of ASDCS stability when the enemy strikes of PGS. Results and their novelty. The novelty of this model is: 1) an integral stability indicator is introduced, which joint of the structural and temporal stability parameters of individual elements of ASDCS; 2) structural parameters are introduced that take into account the capabilities of signal and imagery reconnaissance of the enemy, as well as parameters that take into account the capabilities of ASAM for the physical and functional defeat of the elements of ASDCS, parameters of enemy electronic warfare against communications channels and radar of ASDCS; 3) time parameters are introduced that take into account the duration of transient processes of recovery control in ASDCS when its structure changes. Practical significance. The model, that presented in this paper, will be useful for technical specialists to justify new technological solutions for ASDCS. In addition, this model will be useful for researchers and carrying out study in the field of combat conflict and in the field of the stability of ASDCS.
 Key words
 stability, electronic intelligence, electronic suppression, electronic warfare, means of aerospace attack, control system, air defense, aerospace defense, conflict, fire damage
 Reference
 Afonin I. E., Makarenko S. I., Petrov S. V. Model for assessing the stability of an aerospace defense control system in conflict with aerospace attack means. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 227266. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233227266 (in Russian).
Scientific contribution

Evgeny Petrovich Osadchy: The Outstanding Scientist in Metrology
 Abstract
 Relevance. The biography of the prominent metrologist Evgeny Petrovich Osadchy is considered. The purpose of the article is to use the example of scientific work of E.P. Osadchy to form among beginning scientists an understanding of various approaches to formation of new scientific knowledge. Result. To achieve the purpose of the article, domestic and foreign literature and memories of E.P. Osadchy’s students and colleagues were used. The meaning of the scientist’s main results is outlined. Novelty and theoretical significance. The scientific biography of E.P. Osadchy has been reconstructed. The emphasis is on his work in field of measurement technology and sensor engineering. The article will be useful to young scientists in field of technology studying the methodology of scientific research.
 Key words
 measuring technology, sensor engineering, space research, E.P. Osadchy, Leningrad Polytechnic Institute, Penza State University
 Reference
 Levin V. I. Evgeny Petrovich Osadchy: The Outstanding Scientist in Metrology. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2023, no. 3, pp. 293301. DOI: 10.24412/2410991620233293301 (in Russian).