№2 2017

The Analysis of Ways and Means to Control the Aircrafts from AWACS
 Abstract
 Relevance. At the present time, aerospace forces of Russia are applied outside of Russia. In this case, main of task is to control the aircrafts when ground control stations are not available. For this reason the airborne warning and control system (AWACS) is used as an air command post to control the aircrafts. The aim of paper is to analyse the ways and means to control the aircrafts from AWACS, as well as the formation of proposals for the further development of AWACS control system. Results and their novelty. Elements of novelty of the paper are results of analysis of guidance methods and controls aircrafts from AWACS. So the analysis showed that the modern trend in the development of AWACS control system is control as manned aircrafts, as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Moreover, to control the UAV is characterized by solution of a new class of problems associated with managing on basis of principle of "intelligent swarm" and the implementation of semiautonomous and autonomous control. Also the actual direction of research is to develop air radio fullnetworks that can be used to implement networkcentric control from AWACS and have increased resistance from jamming. Practical significance. The analysis presented will be useful technical and military experts to justify the new methods of combat use of aircrafts outside the territory of Russia, and also for justification of new technical systems of control and communication for AWACS.
 Key words
 control system, aircraft, UAVs, communications system, command radio link, airborne warning and control system, network of air communication
 Reference
 Smirnov S. V. The Analysis of Ways and Means to Control the Aircrafts from AWACS. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 69100. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/03Smirnov.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).

Forecasting changes in time series parameters in digital information management systems
 Abstract
 Statement of the problem. A task of predicting change in parameters of time series is relevant for monitoring processes under investigation in digital information management systems. The task arises in questions research of increasing the forecasting horizon and minimizing forecast error. Object of research are parametric prediction methods based on the representation of the time series by a generalized polynomial in systems of linearly independent functions, the forecasting algorithms based on autoregression models on models of time series reproducing dynamics in the form of artificial neural networks (ANN) are also the object of research. The purpose of the work is development of algorithms for control, functioning and training of an artificial neural network in a matrix form and obtaining an algorithm for return substitution, with help of which it is possible to obtain an increase in the depth of the forecast. Used methods. In the work used methods of empirical processes decomposition, methods of parametric forecasting. Also in the work used method for finding forecast estimates by minimizing loss functionthe square for the norm of the deviation estimates from the observed values of the time series. In the research used generalization method of the prediction algorithm using a linear model represented by functional series or ANN. The scientific novelty of the work consists in solving the prediction task, consisting in finding the model coefficients by iterative method applying recurrent networks with feedbacks for minimizing the objective function. Results. The result of application of the developed algorithm is increase efficiency of predicting change in the parameters of time series by criteria of minimized duration and error in obtaining forecast. Practical value: the proposed structural scheme for implementing neural network forecasting of changes in time series parameters with preliminary wavelet processing provides the opportunity for more effective monitoring of the studied processes, for example, in digital information management systems.
 Key words
 forecasting; parametric prediction; autoregression; functional series; neural network; time series; threelayer perceptron of direct propagation
 Reference
 Kropotov Y. A., Belov A. A., Proskuryakov A. Y. Forecasting changes in time series parameters in digital information management systems. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 117. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/01Kropotov.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).

Prospects and Problems of Development of Communication Networks of Special Purpose
 Abstract
 Relevance. The leading countries develop communication networks of a special purpose (CNSP) operating for the government, the Ministry of defence, Agency of security etc. Main trends in the development of CNSP are the use of resources of civil networks, as well as the use of commercial communication protocols. New network technologies of civil networks (NGN concept, packet transmission technology etc.) are introduced in CNSP. Consequently, it is important to analyze the current state of CNSP, as well as trends and problems of development their. The aim of this paper is to analyze the technologies and principles of CNSP, as well as the prospects and problems of their development. The analysis is based only open sources. DISN and GIG networks are used as examples of CNSP. Results and their novelty. Elements of novelty of the paper are main trends and problems of building of CNSP. The analysis showed that modern CNSP moving to a decentralized network structure that is more in line with modern requirements to systems of state and military administration. Also, modern CNSP move to a hybrid structure where the individual segments of civil networks are used as parts of the transport infrastructure of CNSP. Commercial protocols and technologies widely used in CNSP instead specialized communication protocols too. This trends make the modern CNSP more vulnerable. Practical significance. The presented analysis is useful for technical professionals in the justification of new technological solutions in the field of CNSP. In addition, this analysis will be useful for researchers to justify as improvements CNSP and protection it.
 Key words
 communication system, network communication, communication networks of a special purpose, civil network, network protocols, military communications system, sustainability communications, electronic warfare, information technology, NGN, control communication system
 Reference
 Makarenko S. I. Prospects and Problems of Development of Communication Networks of Special Purpose. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 1868. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/02Makarenko.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).

Descriptive Model of a Special Purpose Communication Network
 Abstract
 Relevance. The leading countries develop communication networks of a special purpose (CNSP) operating for the government, the Ministry of defence, Agency of security etc. Main trends in the development of CNSP are the use of resources of civil networks, as well as the use of commercial communication protocols. New network technologies of civil networks (NGN concept, packet transmission technology etc.) are introduced in CNSP. Therefore, the analysis of the current state of CNSP and creation of its descriptive model are relevant. The aim of this paper is the development of the descriptive model of CNSP. The descriptive model of CNSP is based only open sources. Results and their novelty. New elements of the model of CNSP take into account the main trends of communication evolution, basic protocols, information technologies and network structure. The analysis showed that modern CNSP moving to a decentralized network structure that is more in line with modern requirements to netcentric systems of state and military administration. Also, modern CNSP move to a hybrid structure where the individual segments of civil networks are used as parts of the transport infrastructure of CNSP. Commercial protocols and information technologies widely used in CNSP instead specialized communication protocols too. Practical significance. The descriptive model of CNSP is presented in the paper is useful technical professionals for the justification of new technological solutions in the field of CNSP.
 Key words
 communication system, network communication, communication network of special purpose, network protocols, military communications system, sustainability communications, electronic warfare, information technology, NGN, communication control system
 Reference
 Makarenko S. I. Descriptive Model of a Special Purpose Communication Network. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 113164. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/05Makarenko.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).

Air radio network model for AWACScontrolled aircraft
 Abstract
 Statement of the problem. Aviation of Aerospace forces Russia is used in remote theatres of combat operations which are not equipped with stationary control and communication system. For this reason the airborne warning and control system (AWACS) is used as an air command post to control the aircrafts. Purpose of paper: development and research of model radio network of control aviation from AWACS with the data transmission based on algorithm of random access. In the radio network model study an effect of transit traffic on effective network bandwidth. Methods used. Probability theory and the theory of Markov processes are used in the article for develop the radio network model. Novelty. The radio network model takes into account traffic of transition connections from other networks. The results of the study. Transit traffic significantly affects the performance of the network. The increase in the number of transit connections makes the growth of the effective bandwidth of 1020%, and the time delay of messages in the radio network increases in 22.5 times. This increase in the transmission delay of messages not allows you to send traffic to sensitive delay. Practical relevance: the author proposes to use paper results for relay of traffic through the radio networks of control aviation from AWACS on based Meshtechnology.
 Key words
 communications network, relay traffic, routing, radio networks, AWACS
 Reference
 Smirnov S. V. Air radio network model for AWACScontrolled aircraft. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 165181. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/06Smirnov.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).

Interval Equations and Modelling of Uncertain Systems
 Abstract

Relevance. In the modeling of technical, economic, social systems, it is often necessary to solve equations with intervalspecific parameters (interval equations). The solution of such equations requires special methods that differ from the methods for solving ordinary, deterministic equations. A new method for solving interval equations based on the apparatus of interval mathematics is proposed. Goal. The aim of the work is the development of a completely formalized method for solving interval equations based on the mathematical apparatus mentioned. Method. The method proposed in the article consists in using equivalent transformations of both parts of the interval equation according to the laws of interval mathematics that allow one to move from the interval equation to the ordinary deterministic equations and their subsequent solution by known methods. Result. It is shown that the solution of various interval equations can be performed by two different methods: multiple and interval. The differences between these two methods in the concept of solving the equation, in the mathematical apparatus used, in the possibility of an exact solution, in the power of the resulting set of solutions are revealed. An example of a solution of the interval equation used in the calculation of the zone of contamination by a dangerous substance is given by two methods. Conclusions.The paper proposes a new approach to solving interval equations based on an equivalent transformation of the equation according to the laws of interval mathematics. Such a transformation allows us to bring the equation to a deterministic form, which makes it possible to solve it by wellknown methods for solving ordinary (deterministic) equations. The proposed approach allows us to find the exact solution of the interval equation (if it exists) or its approximate solution (if there is no exact solution).

 Key words
 interval, interval function, interval equation, set method, interval method
 Reference
 Levin V. I. Interval Equations and Modelling of Uncertain Systems. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 101112. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/04Levin.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).

Evaluation of Reliability of Systems by Logical Methods
 Abstract
 Relevance. In recent years, the increasing attention of scientists and designers of communication systems has been acquiring the issues of improving methods for assessing the reliability and safety of technical systems, in connection with the tasks put forward to increase the values of these characteristics. Purpose of the article. is to develop a new, logical model of the reliability of technical systems and the corresponding logical methods for assessing the reliability of such systems, using not traditional probabilistic but deterministic logical reliability indicators. Method. To achieve this goal, it was suggested to use as the initial data the observed moments of successive failures and recovery of the elements of the technical system, and as the reliability characteristics of the system itself, the moments of successive failures and recovery of this system. In this case, the problem of estimating the reliability of a system is reduced to constructing its mathematical model in the form of logical functions expressing the moments of its successive failures and restores through analogous moments of all its elements. In this connection, a logical mathematical apparatus designed to calculate the logical function of the reliability of technical systems is developed in detail. Novelty of the work is the construction of an adequate logical model of the system's reliability, which makes it possible to reduce the reliability estimate of a technical system to the calculation of its logical reliability functions. Result. In the article the logical model of reliability and methods of its investigation are developed in detail, allowing to introduce new indicators of reliability of technical systems that do not require for their evaluation the use of probability methods and initial statistical data on element failures.
 Key words
 system, reliability, a model of reliability, twovalued logic, continuous logic, laws of logic
 Reference
 Levin V. I. Evaluation of Reliability of Systems by Logical Methods. Systems of Control, Communication and Security, 2017, no. 2, pp. 182195. Available at: http://sccs.intelgr.com/archive/201702/07Levin.pdf (accessed ) (in Russian).